Large Genetic Study Could Improve Endometrial Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

Pictured: Douglas Levine

Gynecologic oncologist Douglas Levine (left)

A large-scale study of endometrial cancers has identified genetic mutations and molecular pathways that could allow women with aggressive forms of the disease to be more precisely diagnosed. These insights could bring much-needed clarity to existing treatment choices and also guide clinical trials and the development of new drugs.

The research, published in the May 2 issue of the journal Nature, suggests that endometrial tumors could be reclassified into distinct subtypes based partly on their genetic makeup. This would make it possible to better individualize treatments for women whose endometrial cancers carry a high risk of recurrence.

“The landscape of treatment for endometrial cancer today is quite chaotic,” says Memorial Sloan Kettering gynecologic oncologist Douglas A. Levine, the corresponding author of the Nature study. “My hope is that these new findings will help to provide order to that landscape, especially for more-aggressive endometrial cancers.”

As a result of the findings from the study, patients with endometrial cancer could be tested routinely to determine their particular subtype — and based on test results could possibly enroll in a clinical trial. “The findings have immediate therapeutic application,” Dr. Levine explains. “Even if there is no trial targeting a tumor’s particular mutation or pathway, we at least will have a better idea of which existing treatments to use.”

The genetic study was led by Memorial Sloan Kettering and other centers as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TGCA), a national project funded jointly by the National Cancer Institute and the National Human Genome Research Institute, both part of the National Institutes of Health.

Divergent Treatments after Surgery

Endometrial cancer, which forms in the tissues lining the uterus, is the fourth leading type of cancer among women and the eighth leading cause of cancer deaths. The two most common subtypes of this cancer are endometrioid adenocarcinomas, which are usually curable, and serous adenocarcinomas, which are more aggressive.

The standard initial treatment for both these subtypes is surgery to remove the tumor. For most endometrioid adenocarcinomas that are low grade (slow growing) this treatment alone is sufficient, although some women may also receive radiation therapy.

But for high-grade endometrioid tumors and all serous tumors, which have a high risk of recurrence, there has been widespread uncertainty among doctors over the best approach beyond surgery. Questions include whether lymph nodes should be removed to track cancer spread and whether radiation or chemotherapy (or both) should be given.

Among these higher-grade cancers, endometrioid tumors are often treated with radiation therapy, while serous tumors — considered more aggressive and more likely to recur — are usually treated with chemotherapy. But the different types don’t always behave as predicted.

“Traditionally, treatment decisions have relied largely on pathology — how tumor cells look under a microscope,” Dr. Levine says. “If we incorporate this new genetic information, it could be a great leap forward. We want to make certain these additional treatments are used effectively — but only when necessary, since they do have side effects.”

The analysis of 373 endometrial tumors showed that approximately one-fourth of high-grade endometrioid tumors have certain types of genetic alterations that are also found in the serous tumors. This suggests that a significant portion of high-grade endometrioid tumors may need more-aggressive treatment after surgery than they usually receive today. In many cases, this would mean treating the endometrioid tumors with chemotherapy rather than radiation therapy.

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Potential Drugs Already Being Tested

Many of the endometrial tumors analyzed had mutations in important cancer-related genes and pathways for which targeted therapies are already being tested in clinical trials for other cancers. For example, 84 percent of the tumors have some alteration in the PI3 kinase gene, which lies in a disease pathway called AKT that is implicated in many cancers.

“Several trials testing agents that target the PI3 kinase –AKT pathway in endometrial and other cancers are in progress here at Memorial Sloan Kettering or have already been completed,” Dr. Levine says. “Companies developing these drugs for other cancers are eager to begin testing more of them in endometrial cancer, and they are coming up with newer, more specific drugs all the time. This is going to be a huge field for years to come, so sorting patients into specific subtypes becomes essential to finding the best therapies.”

TCGA is one of the most comprehensive national efforts to collect and analyze the largest set of tumor samples using state-of-the-art genomic and molecular techniques. Memorial Sloan Kettering has played a key role in TCGA from its earliest stages and currently houses one of TCGA’s Genomic Data Analysis Centers, led by computational biologist Chris Sander, biocomputing manager Nikolaus Schultz, and molecular pathologist Marc Ladanyi.

For the endometrial cancer study, Memorial Sloan Kettering provided more than 10 percent of tissue samples analyzed. Dr. Levine is principal investigator of Memorial Sloan Kettering’s TCGA Tissue Source Site, and Co-Chair of the TCGA Endometrial Working Group.

Read more about this study in the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and Bloomberg.

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This research was supported by the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under award 5U24CA143840-04.


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My niece Gilya Murlakov age 49, who lives in Israel has been recently diagnosed with serous papillary endometrial uterine adenocarcinoma stage IV. She has received one dose so far of chemo(cisplatinum and Taxol). She has ascites fluid with metastatic invasion of the colon/small intestine interface. This caused a blockage in her elimination. She was operated on yesterday because the intestine perforated and she became septic. Part of the colon and intestine were removed. We would like to know if she would be a suitable candidate for your study or for your treatment strategy. Please contact me at the above email address.

Thank you for your continued work on this horrible disease. One year out from diagnosis with UPSC and I plan on a very long life. I pray that God guides you in this important work.

I am 20 months from last chemo treatment at UT Southwestern for stage 3 grade 3 carsonma sacorma (MMMT) uterine cancer. Thank you for doing this study. It is the first time that I have really seen something being done for uterine cancer. I pray that more research is done so that a cure or early testing is found so more women do not get this and die from it. My Gyn Onc Dr. also took samples for research when she did my surgery, so I feel that I am contributing to some of the research going on. Thanks for the hard work you and the others are doing.

I had a Grade 3 tumor, Stage 3 with 2 pelvic nodes. Treated with external and internal radiation and 6 rounds of chemo. Many complications: bilateral lymphedema, chronic diarrhea, hematuria, vaginal atrophy, and a new systemic disease, now threatening my sight. To find out that either the radiation or the chemo was not indicated would have saved me from a very diminished "quality of life." Both radiation and chemo are non-specific destroyers. Let's get to nano particle technology sooner than later.

I was recently diagnosed with endometrial serous intraepithelial carcinoma Stage 0, and while further treatment is not recommended for me at this time (treated at Fox Chase and slide review at Hopkins, I would like to be able to help advance the knowledge based. If research is ongoing, and my slides would be of use, I would be happy to have them sent to MSK. Thank you

Thanks for your comment Sandy. We spoke with Dr. Levine, who says,”We appreciate the offer and will keep it in mind as new studies develop.
We encourage you and any other patients to participate in tissue
banking and clinical trials as appropriate.” To find out more about our clinical trials, visit:

If an endometrial cancer patient had surgery at MSK in 2012, was tissue from that patient likely included in this study? And if so, can any findings of one's genetic results be shared with these patients?

We spoke with Dr. Levine, who said that the tissue requirements were quite strict for this study. Each patient had to specifically consent for her tissue to be used in this research. The findings from this study are not linked backed to individual patients. Thank you for your comment.

wow, perhaps this is encouraging for future cure. Stage 1 grade 2 Endo carcinoma.Brachytherapy 3 x Da Vinci total Hysterectomy lymph nodes as well.

i had a recent operation at the mayo clinic phoenix az for tubular cancer(high grade aggressive 3) had complete hysteractomy(Dr.Magrina,performed the robotis surgery)so far I have not deceided to take the suggested 3 or 6 times chemo-what do you suggest-

Very encouraged by the news of new and improved treatments for endometrial cancer. I was diagnosed in 2006 and thankfully required no further treatment after a full hysterectomy. Cousin diagnosed with the same 3 years ago but was not so lucky. Reoccurance and spread cost Lisa her life in February. Please keep up the hard work and find help for those who need it.

Any kind of breakthrough in the fight against any type of cancer is great news! It's been almost 5 years since my radical hysterectomy, 3 rounds of Cisplatin/ Taxol, 30 days of radiation including High-Dose Internal Radiation, and a final 3 rounds of Cisplatin/Taxol for Stage IIIC Endometrial Cancer. Turns out women my age (38 at the time) don't really get this type of cancer unless very obese. But they do get it if there is a genetic abnormality. In my case - HNPCC. I now have to look out for 6 types of cancer, including colon which I have an 80% chance of getting.
But you know what - I'm alive TODAY! I'm doing great. Still get tired easily - but I ration my energy. I'm in the gym 4 days a week, I don't eat processed foods, don't eat a lot of meat, drink endless water and MOST of all...I have a wonderful relationship with God!
May God bless all the researchers and all the people who have cancer and the angels who take care of them!

I was diagnosed with uterine cancer in December 2012. Surgery on January 8 th and learned I would need chemo and radiation. My life turned upside down. Last chemo on 5/28. I am very grateful to both clinicians and researchers at Sloan for their leadership in making sense out of the "chaotic" landscape that currently exists as it pertains to treatment.
Nancy janus

I was diagnosed in Feb 2009 with Stage IIIc endometrial cancer serous adenocarcinoma high grade agressive but is an ovarian type cell which even though I am being treated the same as ovarian cancer does not allow me to participate in clinical trials for ovarian cancer. I had a hysterectomy, 6 rounds of Carbo/Taxol then a recurrence in my aortic node treated with Carbo/Doxil and have been on Doxil for 2 years straight every 4 weeks with clear CT scans. I feel really upset that I do not fit into a clinical trial for ovarian when that is what I am being treated for. Where are we in moving forward with patients like myself? It appears there are only a limited amount of effective chemo drugs for this type of cancer. I appreciate your input Thank you

Jane, unfortunately we are not able to answer personal medical questions on our blog. If you’d like to make an appointment with a Memorial Sloan-Kettering physician to discuss treatment options, please call 800-525-2225. Thank you for your comment.

I am 75. I recently had an endometrial biopsy: a small amount of endometrial hyperplasia with a small non-malignant polyp. I was treated for 10+ years with megestral('94-'05) with no recurrence, followed by dx of bleeding with minimal hyperplasia and non-malignant polyps in '08, '12, and 5-13. I need help to know what are my options.

4/201(47yrs old) Active, not overweight, not diabetic. A large, fast growing gelatinous tumor was found in my abdomen preventing bowel and bladder functions. Occurred through metastasis from the endometrium. Tumor type Adenocarcinoma of Endometrium, stage 3A. The tumor ruptured a few days before the abdominal hysterectomy which caused a rectocele. Chemo - Taxotere & Carboplatin -6 treatments. It has now been 1 year since my last treatment. I just had a colonoscopy and they found a Tubulovillous Adenoma. These have a high rate of becoming cancer. I'm such a health nut, it is hard to believe. I'm thinking a gene test may be a good idea. What do you think MSK?

My Mom (81 and in good health) has Stage 4 metastatic uterine serous paipllary adenocarcinoma. She has had 2 rounds of chemo and radiation. The 2nd round of chemo had no reaction. I would like to know if there are any suitable clinical trials or other avenues we should be investigating.

Thank you.


Debbie, we are unable to answer specific medical questions on our blog. If you would like to make an appointment with a Memorial Sloan-Kettering physician, please call our Physician Referral Service at 800-525-2225 or go to You also can see the list of active clinical trials at Memorial Sloan-Kettering at:

You can learn about all clinical trials in the U.S. at:

Thanks for your comment.

Two part question. What effective treatments have come as a result of this study? My mother has stage IV endometrioid adenocarcinoma type 2 and is being treating at MSK. There doesn't seem to be any effective treatments and we have been pressing our MSK oncologist for more aggressive therapies. She has been very bad in communicating what other therapies are out there besides the "standard" radiation and chemo so we have asked for another MSK oncologist as a result. Apparently, it's MSK policy to not allow patients to switch oncologists unless the one we are assigned to request the change. So we are stuck. Would be able to see another MSK oncologist that is more innovative and knows of more aggressive treatments such as Dr. Levine?

Laila, the research by Dr. Levine that’s described in this story is still at an early stage and has not yet led to changes in clinical practice. At Memorial Sloan Kettering, all of our doctors work together as part of a disease management team, which means that your mother will get the benefit of the collective knowledge of all of our doctors no matter who her primary physician is. We do have some clinical trials for patients with endometrial cancer who meet certain qualifications, so this is something that your mother might want to discuss with her current doctor. If you’d like to discuss our policies with someone, you can call our Office of Patient Representative at 212-639-7202. Thank you for your comment.

My 68 year old Mom was diagnosed Dec. 31st, 2013 with cancer. It was finally given the name of stage 4b high grade papillary serous type 2 adenocarcinoma. They went in and took out as much as possible, at that time. It took her surgical wounds 10 months to completely heal. After chemo in May 2014, her CA125 count was at a wonderful 7. Since, it has increased and is last at 49, as of Oct. 2014. Her CT scan shows 3 more tumors on the liver, pelvis and bowel. UF Cancer Center in Orlando is suggesting Doxil next. They say her life expectancy is approximately 1 year. I constantly do research and we will travel to help her. She wants to be aggressive in treatment but is also sensitive to pain and discomfort. They sent her original slides to Ovagene for gene mutations and say the next step would be to get live tissue and have that tested for more specific treatment. We travel 1 1/2 hours once a month to Orlando to see her doctor. I know you can not give advice over this blog. Like everyone, I am hoping for a miracle or some more healthy years for this kindhearted, incredible woman. I have a 5 year old who adores her and needs her in his life. I do not want her to lose hope, but every time we go to the doctor, we get more bad news and her life expectancy has gone from the original 5 years, from surgery date now to 1 year. She is a very young 68 year old, social, normally energetic and full of life. Have you seen the research they are doing at University of Alberta, in Canada in ref. to DCA - dichloroacetic acid indecesapaptosis? i am desperate to find anyone or anything to help her. Thanks. Kim

Dear Kim, thanks very much for reaching out to us. We understand what a difficult time this is for you and your family, and that you want to get the best care possible for your mom. In general, our recommendation to patients from out of state is that they seek care at one of the 41 National Cancer Institute-Designated Cancer Centers across the country. If you are in Florida, the closest one is likely Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa. If you’re interested in coming to MSK for a second opinion, here is how to reach us: As for the DCA, here is some background from the Canadian Cancer Society that may be of interest:…. Thanks so much again for reaching out to us, and we wish you and your family all the best.

My wife has been suffering from thyroid cancer which was confirmed to be stage four, the doctor told me there was little he could do since she wasn’t responding to treatment but a friend of mine came to our rescue by ordering this cannabis oil from ozalogbo which he said has been helping some patient fight against cancer of various types so we decided to give it a chance, so far my wife is improving perfectly very well and presently she can walk around the house all by herself. I felt its necessary i let others who are suffering from this acute disease that once you have a good cannabis oil it can really give one a sound second chance of living. by chance if you happen to be in need of this cannabis oil you can contact ozalogbo who supplied I and my wife with this email: [email protected]

Hi. I am actually from the UK and my mum aged 58 has recently been diagnosed with uterine serous cell cancer stage 4. My mum endured years of agonising pains and troubles during menopause and eventually an ovary was removed as cysts were seen on it during a routine gall bladder op. The results of the test on the ovary showed it was cancerous and from there my mum was given a radical hysterectomy. Following this op came the diagnosis of the cancer. The cancer was also found in mums omentum.
My mum is currently having chemo.
I am just so worried and came across this on a Google search and I thought it was amazing you were undertaking this research. Do you know of anything similar in the uk?
Have you any further information on your results as these comments were made some time ago.
Also I worry about how the Drs will detect after chemo if the cancer is still there or comes back since scans show nothing unless it is a mass. Do you have any advice?

Zepo, thank you for reaching out. We suggest you talk to your mother’s treatment team about whether she could be tested for her particular subtype and to inquire about possible clinical trial in the UK or elsewhere. (Unfortunately, we cannot offer medical advice on this blog.) If you would like to send her records for a consulation at Memorial Sloan Kettering, you can contact our International Center by calling 1­212­639­4900 or going to­care/international­patients. The email address is [email protected].

I was diagnosed with MMMT uterine cancer. What is the current treatment for this and what is the survival rate

Phyllis, to find out about MSK’s approach to treating uterine cancer, you can go to You might also want to reach out the the National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Information Service at 800-4CANCER. They should be able to answer additional questions you have about treatment.

If you’d like to make an appointment for a consultation at MSK, you can call 800-525-2225 or go to for more information on making an appointment. Thank you for your comment.

Dear MSK, my mother, 73 and in good health, had successful robotic assisted hysterectomy for stage 3c uterine cancer three weeks ago. The oncologist is now recommending chemotherapy (6 sessions taxol and carboplatin) and radiation because it was detected in 3 of 10 lymph nodes which were removed. Before proceeding, we wish to have MSK opinion on this treatment plan, weighing side effects, her age and constitution, and the long term view. Thank you in advance

good info

I was diagnosed July 2013 with serous papillary uterine cancer stage 1a grade 3. I had a total hysterectomy and received 6 carbon platinum and taxol chemo treatments. The uterine cancer returned in September 2015. I received the same 6 treatments. Pet scan was clear. 2 months later ca 125 was over 1100. I am presently under doxil chemo. Is there any hope for me?

Sandi, we’re sorry to hear you’re going through this. If you’d like to come to MSK to speak with one of our doctors about the possibility of getting treatment here or participating in a clinical trial, you can call 800-525-2225 or go to for more information on making an appointment. If you’re not in the NYC area and not able to come here, you may want to go to to look for trials for your type and stage of cancer that are offered at a location that’s better for you. Thank you for your comment.

Just had hysterectomy all areas outside uterus biopsied came back negative. Stage 1a
Polyp in uterus diagnosed grade 3 serous.
I hate the idea of chemo
Took tamoxifen 14 years. Never clean margins breast cancer. No changes in 14 years.
Are there alternatives to chem and radiation?

Dear Marg, we are sorry to hear about your health issues. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are standard treatments for women with uterine cancer - you may learn more here (see left-hand navigation):

We also offer clinical trials investigating new therapies, such as immunotherapy - you may browse through our open studies for people with uterine cancer here:….

If you have any questions about these studies or would like to make an appointment, please call our Physician Referral Service at 800-525-2225. Thank you for reaching out to us.

Wondering what the results of this study showed?
My 86 year old Mother was diagnosed with USPC and endometrial adenocarcinoma. She had no invasion of the USPC past mucosa, though they found "one cell" in a fallopian tube. She is cared for at a major center of excellence in oncology, and had vaginal cuff radiation and Carboplatin chemotherapy after surgery, and did beautifully for three years at which point GI signs from diagnosis recurred and CT showed recurrence in pelvic area of abdomen / lymph nodes and omental caking /CA 125 550. Carboplatin was restarted, CA125 went to 165 but she at second treatment had a severe infusion reaction. Desensitization allowed treatment to resume given slowly / diluted etc. Interval prolonged due to scheduling of desensitization protocol. Carboplatin overall very well tolerated. 5th cycle CA 125 280 now ~350. Slight improvement in CT and clinically doing better; GI signs resolved. Thought is mild CHF signs possibly effecting CA125 ... Cardiologist has yet to comment. I am curious as to the latest and greatest recommendations for treating recurrent USPC (and I understand each patient it is individual ie take age into account). Thank you, Judy Webb

I had UPSC in 2010; hysterectomy, oophorectomy, removal of lymph nodes and omentum revealed no spread outside of uterus. Chemo and radiation, and 6 years later no recurrence. Now my 43 yr old daughter requires a hysterectomy for large fibroid tumors. QUESTION: is there any connection between my UPSC and increased risk for her to have ovarian cancer? She has to decide whether to remove her ovaries during the surgery; would prefer not to unless she has increased risk.

On May 22nd I had a full hysterectomy and 2 lymph nodes removed. My original biopsy states I had endometrioid adenocarcimona Figo grade 1. Doctors and surgeons were so optomistic that all I would need is surgery. After the surgery, the pathology results stated the cancer of the uterus was contained only in the uterus lining - did not permeate the uterus muscle, but the 2 lymph nodes tested positive for cancer cells. All Figo grade 1. Now I am being recommended for chemotherapy. I am confused. Is it normal for such a slow growing cancer not to invade any other gyn. tissues but still be in lymph nodes?? If it really necessary for chemo?

Does MSK require that they review your pathology slides in conjunction with getting a second opinion from an MSK physician regarding a treatment plan? I live in New York City and getting my slides would not be difficult. Or do you recommend I see an MSK physician for a second opinion first? I have been diagnosed after a hysterectomy ,removal of ovaries with Stage 1 endometrial cancer Grade 3 serous adenocarcinoma. I had stage one breast cancer 15 years ago with no reoccurrence. I had radiation and aromatase for 5 years. Thank you

Dear Marcia, we’re very sorry to hear about your diagnosis. The answer to your question depends on many circumstances. While MSK recognizes that a pathology review is an important component of the recommendations made by the physicians here, it is not a requirement. We encourage you to call 800-525-2225 to speak with one of our dedicated staff members who help patients make appointments. They will be able to listen to your specific needs and give you the information that you need. Thank you for your comment, and best wishes to you.

I am a 54 year old female and have recently been diagnosed with simple hyperplasia without atypia, but unfortunately did not respond to three months of progesterone. My mother had endometrial cancer with a papillary serous cell type and was operated on by Dr. Chi in 1998. Despite a very positive experience at Sloan, my mother had a very extensive surgery, and only survived 6 months past the procedure. With all factors considered, my GYN would like me to get a second opinion. Would MSK be a good choice to come in and review my case? Thank you in advance for any advice you can give me.

I when to have my pad test n they send me to have Vagina sonogram and they said that I have a slight endometrial stripe which should be correlated for endometrial hyperplasia, malignancy, or polyp. consider endometrial sampling if clinical warranted than follow up in one year can I have cancer went for a biopsy but was put on vagina cream to open my womb